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**In Eighth Grade students will acquire the following skills:**

**Math: Geometry:**

- Understand the relationship between points, lines, planes, and angles
- Use logic to solve real life problems
- Understand the relationship between parallel and perpendicular lines
- Understand the relationship between triangles
- Understand proportions and similarities of polygons
- Understand the properties of right triangles as well as a basic understanding of trigonometry
- Understand the properties of quadrilaterals
- Perform transformations
- Understand arcs and angles in circles
- Find the area and volume of polygons and polyhedrons

**Science:**

- Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms
- Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.
- Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles
- Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.
- Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction
- Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay
- Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration
- Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved where there is no net force on the system.
- Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision
- Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects
- Plan and conduct and investigation to provide evidence that an electrical current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce and electric current
- Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known
- Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles (objects) and energy associated with the relative position of particles (objects)
- Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy
- Plan and conduct and investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics)
- Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction
- Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media
- Evaluate questions about the advantages of using a digital transmission and storage of information
- Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations, one model is more useful than the other
- Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that the different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter
- Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy